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    A promising target for immunotherapy?

    • Downregulated miRNA clusters were characterized in bladder biopsy tissue obtained from patients with bladder outlet obstruction and could provide insights into the mechanism for loss of function.
    • MicroRNA-132 induced bladder hypertrophy and overactivity in a rodent model. Its effects on muscle contractility were consistent with its ability to downregulate acetylcholinesterase and upregulate molecules associated with overactivity.
    • Estrogen receptor gene networks may provide novel biomarkers for studying BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms.
    • Periprostatic fat in obese patients may contribute to prostate tissue remodeling.
    • Extracellular vesicles derived from amniotic fluid stem cells attenuated elevated VEGF signaling in a mouse model of Alport syndrome and the pathologic sequelae of the disease.
    • Patients with calcium stones and Randall’s plaque excrete distinct populations of miRNAs within urinary extracellular vesicles. These miRNAs contribute to stone pathogenesis and may serve as valuable biomarkers.
    • A biofabricated bone marrow-derived cell patch restored structure and function to radiation-injured bladders in a rat model.
    • Optogenetics offers a strategy to evoke control of discrete populations of bladder sensory fibers that could lead to better understanding of their role in bladder function and disease.

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