"There are significant data examining the role of heat exposure to male sperm. However, none of it is very high quality and the data are murky at best," write James R. Craig, MD, MS; William Brant, MD; and James M. Hotaling, MD, MS.
The purpose of this article is to provide a clear understanding of the basis for the genetic and epigenetic tools that are increasingly used in medicine, highlight some of these tools currently used in urology, and explain the clinical and medicolegal ramifications of direct-to-consumer tests.
Whatever the exact mechanism of the increase in desire for testosterone replacement therapy in men, knowing the risks and benefits of testosterone and its alternatives are vital skills for today’s practicing urologist. This article will focus on alternatives to testosterone therapy.